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Galaxies, 01 January 1970 -
02 April 2022

M31 (Andromeda)

Image

Details

galaxies/20171014_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 14 October 2017.

Imaged from Haw Wood. William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer. HEQ5 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Ten 480 s exposures at ISO 800.

galaxies/20170805_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 05 August 2017.

Olympus OM 200 mm lens with Canon 60Da camera on Meade Eq mount. Fifteen 60 s exposures at ISO 800. Demonstrates what can be done without the use of a telescope.

galaxies/20170801_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 01 August 2017.

Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Fourteen 360 s exposures at ISO 800. A good amount of detail is visible in the dark lanes in the image. Enlargement of the central area.

galaxies/20170102_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 02 January 2017.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera, stack of fifteen 480 s exposures (120 minutes total exposure time) at ISO 400 plus dark, flat and bias frames.

galaxies/20161102_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 02 November 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera, stack of thirteen 420 s exposures plus two of 120 s, all at ISO 400.

galaxies/20161021_M31_AG.jpg

Andy Gibbs, 21 October 2016.

M31, M110 and M32. Explore Scientific ED80 carbon fibre refractor on HEQ5 mount with 0.7x reducer/correcter. Canon 1200d camera. Stack of five 120 s light frames plus five 120 s dark frames. Processed in Deep Sky Stacker and Photoshop Elements 11.

galaxies/20160930_M31+M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 30 September 2016.

Wide angle image of both M31 and M33. Canon 60Da camera with Canon 50 mm lens. Skywatcher Star Adventurer mount. Mosaic of two pictures each stacked from five frames. Taken at Haw Wood Farm caravan site.

galaxies/20151220_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 20 December 2015.

M31 and the two companion galaxies, M32 and M110. William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of ten frames of 360 s and five of 6 s all at ISO 800.

galaxies/20151113_M31_KJF_5801.jpg

Kev Fulcher, 13 November 2015.

Canon 70D camera on iOptron Skyguider mount. 70-300 mm Canon lens at 70 mm, f/5.6, ISO 400. Stack of twenty frames. Image taken at Shingle Street (looking into a dark sky over the North Sea).

galaxies/20150920_M31_KJF.jpg

Kevin Fulcher, 20 September 2015.

Canon 70D camera and 300 mm lens. Four 30 s exposures stacked in DSS and tweaked in Lightroom. (Image captured during a brief gap in cloud!)

galaxies/20141213_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 13 December 2014.

M31 and the two companion galaxies, M32 and M110. William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of 300 s exposures at ISO 400 with minimal additional processing.

galaxies/20141019_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 19 October 2014.

The companion galaxies M32 and M110 are visible in the full image to left, (not in the thumbnail). Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of seventeen 2 s exposures plus four dark frames and four flat frames.

galaxies/20141002_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 02 October 2014.

The companion galaxies M32 and M110 are visible in the full image to left, (not in the thumbnail). Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of exposures compromised by moonlight.

galaxies/20140823_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 23 August 2014.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Twenty-two 60 s exposures at ISO 3200 stacked with Deep Sky Stacker and processed in GIMP.

galaxies/20140820_M31_KJF.jpg

Kev Fulcher, 20 August 2014.

The companion galaxy M32 is visible in the full image (not in the thumbnail) .Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian. Canon 30D camera.

galaxies/20131110_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 10 November 2013.

The image shows M31 and the satellite galaxies M110 and M32, with a satellite trail in the foreground. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of 12 frames. The original exposures were compromised by bright moonlight but this has been largely eliminated by image processing.

galaxies/20131029_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 29 October 2013.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of 80 s exposures at ISO 1600.

galaxies/20131023_M31_DM.jpg

David Murton, 23 October 2013.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera in prime focus configuration. Stack of three 30 s exposures at ISO 1600 with minimal additional processing. (Exposure time limited due to imperfect polar alignment.)

galaxies/20131006_M31_AG.jpg

Andy Gibbs, 06 October 2013.

Meade LX200 200 mm SCT with f/3.3 focal reducer. Equatorial wedge. Atik Titan one-shot colour camera. Three 90 s exposures and one 90 s dark frame aligned, combined and de-Bayered with Atik Dawn software. (Exposure time limited by polar alignment problems.)

galaxies/20130928_M31_DM_1566.jpg

David Murton, 28 September 2013.

M31 and M32, one of the companion galaxies in orbit around it. Meade 230 mm, f/10 SCT on Skywatcher HEQ5 Pro mount. Canon EOS 60D camera. (Equipment owned by Mike O'Mahony). Image taken at dark-sky site at Walberswick.


NGC891 (Andromeda)

Image

Details

galaxies/20080909_NGC891_MJH.jpg

Mike Harlow, 09 September 2008.

NGC891 is a spiral galaxy seen edge-on. 340 mm, f/4.0 Newtonian telescope with Starlight express MX916 CCD camera. The telescope had just been reassembled and was in need of adjustment to collimation and focusing, so the image could be improved. Note that the rows of dots aren’t trailed asteroids: they're hot pixels picked out in the image stacking.


M94 (Canes Venatici)

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Details

galaxies/20220325_M94_JWH.png

John Hughes, 25 March 2022.

200 mm StellaLyra Ritchey-Chretien reflector, ZWO ASI1600mm camera, gain 139, offset 30, sensor temp -10°C, binning 2x2, Chroma 1.25” LRGB filters. Exposure time 120 s for each sub-frame; number of sub-frames L:R:G:B 229:70:74:75; total integration time 14.9 hours. M94, at an altitude of 40° at 8.00pm, was ideally placed for imaging as it rose towards the meridian. The image was captured across the nights of 22, 23, 24 and 25 March 2022.

galaxies/20140322_M94_DM.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener. HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposure at ISO 800.


M51 (Canes Venatici)

Image

Details

galaxies/20200326_M51_AG.png

Andy Gibbs, 26 March 2020.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF apochromatic refractor on HEQ5 mount with Atik One 6.0 camera. Image captured with RGB filters and cropped. Equipment controlled remotely via a Primaluce Lab Eagle 3. Software used: Sequence Generator Pro, Atik Dawn and Photoshop CC 2020.

galaxies/20200322_M51_luminance_AG.png

Andy Gibbs, 22 March 2020.

M51 with galaxies NGC5023 and NGC5229 visible towards the bottom right of the full image. Explore Scientific ED80 CF apochromatic refractor on HEQ5 mount with Atik One 6.0 camera. Image captured with luminance filter and cropped. Equipment controlled remotely via a Primaluce Lab Eagle 3. Software used: Sequence Generator Pro, Atik Dawn and Photoshop CC 2020.

galaxies/20190330_M51_JWH.jpg

John Hughes, 30 March 2019.

William Optics Z61, ZWO ASI294MC Pro cooled camera. This was my first use of the newly-acquired camera. Camera settings: unity gain 120, temperature -15°C. Thirty-four 300 s exposure light frames, 25 flat frames, dark flats and dark frames. (Overall, 2 hours and 50 minutes worth of imaging, my longest session to date.) I was impressed with the performance of the new camera.

galaxies/20170721_M51_DM.jpg

David Murton, 21 July 2017.

M51 with neighbouring galaxies NGC5198 at magnitude 11.8, IC4263 at magnitude 14.5, NGC5173 at magnitude 12.2 and NGC5169 at magnitude 13.5. Image annotated to identify galaxies. Enlargement. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of six 360 s exposures at ISO 800.

galaxies/20170330_M51_AG.png

Andy Gibbs, 30 March 2017.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF apochromatic refractor on HEQ5 mount. Atik Titan camera. Five 300 s exposures with light and dark frames, autoguided.

galaxies/20170320_M51_AG.png

Andy Gibbs, 20 March 2017.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF apochromatic refractor on HEQ5 mount. Atik Titan camera. Three 180 s exposures with dark frames, unguided.

galaxies/20170117_M51_MOM.jpg

Mike O'Mahony, 17 January 2017.

Meade 230 mm f/10 SCT. Stack of twenty-five 30 s exposures at ISO 3200. Unfortunately, house and street lights contributed to noise in the image.

galaxies/20160911_M51_AG.jpg

Andy Gibbs, 11 September 2016.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF apochromatic refractor on HEQ5 mount. Atik Infinity camera. Stack of 15 s exposures with minimal post-processing. (The image was captured to assess the capabilities of the camera itself.)

galaxies/20160430_M51_DM.jpg

David Murton, 30 April 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Ten 360 s exposures at ISO 200 stacked in DSS and processed in GIMP.

galaxies/20140322_M51_DM2.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener, HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of seven 60 s exposures at ISO 800.

galaxies/20140322_M51_DM1.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener, HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposure at ISO 800.

galaxies/20131029_M51_DM.jpg

David Murton, 29 October 2013.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 80 s exposure at ISO 400.

galaxies/20080331_M51_MJH1.jpg

Mike Harlow, 31 March 2008.

160 mm, f/2.5 Schmidt camera with MX916 CCD. Single 6½ m exposure showing the spiral arms.

galaxies/20080331_M51_MJH2.jpg

Mike Harlow, 31 March 2008.

A highly stretched, negative version of the above image showing diffuse outer regions where stars have been flung by the interaction of the two galaxies.

galaxies/19950227_M51_MJH.gif

Mike Harlow, 27 February 1995.

300 mm Newtonian reflector with Starlight Express CCD camera.


M63 (Canes Venatici)

Image

Details

galaxies/20210405_M63_AG.jpg

Andy Gibbs, 05 April 2021.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF apochromatic refractor on HEQ5 mount with Atik One 6.0 camera. Equipment controlled via a Primaluce Lab Eagle 3. Eighteen 180 s exposures in luminance, six 240 s exposures in red, green and blue, plus dark and flat frames. Software used: Sequence Generator Pro and Affinity Photo.

galaxies/20200415_M63_LRGB_JWH.jpg

John Hughes, 15 April 2020.

William Optics Z103 APO refractor with ZWO ASI1600mm Pro cooled mono camera on SkyWatcher EQ6R-Pro mount. Total integration time 6.4 hours across three separate nights: luminance 44 x 3 minutes, red 16 x 5 minutes, green 17 x 5 minutes and blue 17 x 5 minutes.

galaxies/20180506_M63_NSE.jpg

Nigel Evans, 06 May 2018.

Celestron 200 mm Edge HD with low-pass filter and SBIG8300 camera. 2x2 binning, 30 minute exposure starting at 02:13 UT.

galaxies/20170301_M63_DM.jpg

David Murton, 01 March 2017.

M63 is at a distance of 30 million LY; it is approximately 100,000 LY in diameter. The brightest star on the major axis of the galaxy is of magnitude eight. Further to the right (preceding) in the full image (not the thumbnail) is the magnitude 14 galaxy UGC8313, a member of the M51 group. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Fifteen 480 s exposures at ISO 400.


M106 (Canes Venatici)

Image

Details

galaxies/20220227_M106_JWH.png

John Hughes, 27 February 2022.

Accompanying M106 in the full image (not the thumbnail) are galaxies NGC4346 (bottom left), NGC4217 (bottom right) and NGC4220 (top right). The four galaxies are respectively at approximate distances: 23m LY, 35m LY, 61m LY and 63m LY. William Optics Z103 APO refractor with ZWO ASI1600mm Pro cooled mono camera on SkyWatcher EQ6R-Pro mount. The image is an update of the below image, based on imaging over a period of 13 months as follows: 21 January 2021, 3 minute exposures R:G:B 25:39:29; 26-27 February 2022, 2 minute exposures L:R:G:B 130:60:55:60. Total integration time 14.8 hours.

galaxies/20210125_M106_JWH.jpg

John Hughes, 25 January 2021.

Equipment as above image. During imaging, the Moon was 89% illuminated which resulted in a large gradient on the left hand side of the image, especially in the red channel, but this was easily removed with PixInsight's DynamicBackgroundExtraction tool. The image is based on 3 minute exposures as follows: R:G:B 20:31:36.

galaxies/1994xxxx_M106_RP.gif

Ric Pecce, 1994.

Meade 250 mm f/10 SCT. Guided 120 minute exposure on hypersensitised Technical Pan film.


NGC4631 Cluster (Canes Venatici)

Image

Details

galaxies/20170309_0856UT_NGC4631_JMA.png

James Appleton, 09 March 2017.

Barred spiral galaxy NGC4631 and elliptical companion NGC4627. The galaxies are interacting and were listed no. 281 by Halton Arp in his 1966 Catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies. They lie at a distance of approximately 30 million LY. The field annotated to indicate fainter suspected galaxies (circled). Siera Stars Observatory Network 51 cm Gemini telescope, unfiltered, 5 m exposure.

galaxies/20170219_NGC4631+NGC4627+NGC4656+NGC4657_DM.jpg

David Murton, 19 February 2017.

A wide field showing NGC4631 together with barred spiral NGC4656/7 at bottom right. Close-up of NGC4631 and NGC4627. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of eight 480 s exposures at ISO 400. Natural colour.


NGC4244 (Canes Venatici)

Image

Details

galaxies/20180506_NGC4244_NSE.jpg

Nigel Evans, 06 May 2018.

Celestron 200 mm Edge HD with low-pass filter and SBIG8300 camera, 125 minute exposure, 2x2 binning.


NGC4485 & NGC4490 (Arp 269, Canes Venatici)

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Details

galaxies/20210416_NGC4485+NGC4490_JWH.png

John Hughes, 16 April 2021.

The two galaxies have come close together and are new receding. There are starburst regions in both and their mutual gravitational attractions continue to disrupt their structures. A paper was accepted to the Astrophysical Journal in January 2020 (arXiv:2001.05601) identifying a "double nucleus" in NGC4490, one component visible in optical wavelengths and the other in infra-red. 200 mm StellaLyra Ritchey-Chretien reflector.


NGC5394 & NGC5395 (Arp 84, Canes Venatici)

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Details

galaxies/20210415_NGC5394+NGC5395_JWH.png

John Hughes, 14-15 April 2021.

The two galaxies (collectively known as the Heron Galaxy) are interacting and have probably already merged once, separated and are now approaching each other again. There is a starburst region in each as gravitational turbulence causes dense regions of Hydrogen gas to coalesce. 200 mm StellaLyra Ritchey-Chretien reflector.


M33 (Triangulum)

Image

Details

galaxies/20171125_M33_AG.jpg

Andy Gibbs, 25 November 2017.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF Refractor with Canon 1200D camera. Four 360 s light frames and dark frames at ISO 800. Processed in Deep Sky Stacker and Photoshop CC. Unfortunately, tracking/guiding errors are evident in the top left corner of the image.

galaxies/20170923_M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 23 September 2017.

M33 is one of the larger deep sky objects and part of our local group of galaxies. It lies approximately 3 million light years distant. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Fifteen 480 s exposures at ISO 400 plus fifteen 480 s exposures at ISO 800. As can be seen, the total exposure time of over four hours provides a lot of detail in the image.

galaxies/20170805_M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 05 August 2017.

Olympus OM 200 mm lens with Canon 60Da camera on Meade Eq mount. Fifteen 60 s exposures at ISO 800. Demonstrates what can be done without the use of a telescope.

galaxies/20161102_M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 02 November 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of twenty-three 420 s exposures at ISO 400.

galaxies/20151229_M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 29 December 2015.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor on HEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of three 300 s exposures at ISO 400.

galaxies/20141027_M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 27 October 2014.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm, f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of sixteen 240 s exposures at ISO 800.

galaxies/20140823_M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 23 August 2014.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm, f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera.

galaxies/20131029_M33_DM.jpg

David Murton, 29 October 2013.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm, f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of six 80 s exposures at ISO 400.


M58 and nearby galaxies (Virgo)

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Details

galaxies/20170427_M58+NGC4564-7-8+IC3578_DM.jpg

David Murton, 27 April 2017.

Galaxies top to bottom: M58, NGC4564, NGC4567/NGC4568 (the Siamese Twins) and IC3578. M58 is a magnitude 10.5 barred spiral galaxy, NGC4564 a magnitude 11.1 elliptical galaxy. NGC4567/NGC4568 are two unbarred spiral galaxies, about 60 million light-years distant, in the process of colliding; they are magnitude 10.9 and have an apparent size of 4.6'x2.1'. IC3578 is a magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy just 0.9'x0.3' in size. The galaxies are all members of the Virgo super cluster. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of fifteen 480 s exposures at ISO 400 plus dark, flat and bias frames. Processed in DSS and GIMP.

galaxies/20160430_M58+NGC4564-7-8_DM.jpg

David Murton, 30 April 2016.

M58, NGC4564 and NGC4567/4568 (the Siamese Twins). Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Six 360 s exposures at ISO 200 stacked in DSS and processed in GIMP.


M86 (Virgo)

Image

Details

galaxies/20170403_M86_grp_DM.jpg

David Murton, 03 April 2017.

M86 and surrounding galaxies, the centre of Markarian's Chain. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of twenty 480 s exposures at ISO 400.

galaxies/20170316_M86_grp_DM.jpg

David Murton, 16 March 2017.

M86 and surrounding galaxies, the centre of Markarian's Chain. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of five 480 s exposures at ISO 400. The onset of clouds prevented the capture of further exposures. The field of view of the full image is approximately 0.75°. Annotated image.

galaxies/20160304_M86_grp_DM.jpg

David Murton, 04 March 2016.

M86 and surrounding galaxies. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount with Canon 60Da camera. Stack of fifteen 360 s images, ISO 400.


M88 (Virgo)

Image

Details

galaxies/20160304_M88_DM.jpg

David Murton, 04 March 2016.

M88 is a magnitude 9.5, face-on spiral galaxy, approximately 47 million light years distant with an apparent size 6.8'x3.7'. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount with Canon 60Da camera. Stack of five 360 s images, ISO 400.

galaxies/20160304_M88_area_DM.jpg

David Murton, 04 March 2016.

M88 and surrounding galaxies. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount with Canon 60Da camera. Stack of five 360 s images, ISO 400.


M90 (Virgo)

Image

Details

galaxies/20140322_M90_DM.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener. HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposure at ISO 800.


M104 (Virgo)

Image

Details

galaxies/20170403_M104_DM.jpg

David Murton, 03 April 2017.

Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of fifteen 480 s images at ISO 400. Enlargement.

galaxies/20160331_M104_DM.jpg

David Murton, 31 March 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount with Canon 60Da camera. Stack of fifteen 360 s exposures at ISO 200 with dark, flat and bias frames. Enlargement.


NGC4402 (Virgo)

Image

Details

galaxies/20160304_NGC4402_DM.jpg

David Murton, 04 March 2016.

NGC4402 is a magnitude 11.8 object with an apparent size 3.6'x1.1'. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount with Canon 60Da camera. Stack of fifteen 360 s images, ISO 400.


NGC4468 (Virgo)

Image

Details

galaxies/20160304_NGC4468_area_DM.jpg

David Murton, 04 March 2016.

NGC4468 and surrounding galaxies. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount with Canon 60Da camera. Stack of five 360 s images, ISO 400.


IC342 (Camelopardalis)

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Details

galaxies/20211102_IC342_JWH.png

John Hughes, 02 November 2021.

IC342 is a large intermediate-spiral galaxy some 10 million light years distant located in the constellation Camelopardalis. Discovered as late as 1892 by William Denning, it is thought to have escaped detection for so long because it is positioned in a dusty area near the equator of the Milky Way, making it difficult to observe. Viewing through the cosmic dust gives it a reddish-brown hue and causes attenuation of its brightness by two magnitudes. Williams Optics Z103 APO refractor, ZWO ASI1600mm camera and Chroma 1.25” LRGB filters. LRGB 120 s exposures 22:30:30:30 and 300 s exposures 40:20:18:2 (clouds intervened!)


NGC2403 (Camelopardalis)

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Details

galaxies/20220104_NGC2403_JWH.png

John Hughes, 04 January 2022.

NGC2403 contains several HII regions where stars are forming. It was host to two supernovae, SN 1954J and SN 2004dj; the latter was discovered on 31 July 2004 and, at a visual magnitude 11.2, was the brightest supernova this century. Williams Optics Z103 APO refractor on SkyWatcher EQ6R-Pro mount, ZWO ASI1600mm Pro cooled camera and Chroma 1.25” LRGB filters. The image is a composite in LRGB. Each image is formed from 20 sub-frames for each channel, with an exposure time of 5 minutes per sub-frame. Total integration time 6 hours 40 minutes.

galaxies/20171218_NGC2403_AG.jpg

Andy Gibbs, 18 December 2017.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF refractor on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1200D camera, multiple 360 s exposures at ISO800 with darks and flats. Processed in Deep Sky Stacker and Photoshop CC.


M64 (Coma Berenices)

Image

Details

galaxies/20170529_M64_DM.jpg

David Murton, 29 May 2017.

M64, The Black Eye galaxy in Coma Berenices. The Black Eye is caused by a dust cloud obscuring the light of more distant stars. The galaxy is a magnitude 9.4 object lying at a distance of 24 million light years. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Fourteen 480 s exposures at ISO 400.


M100 (Coma Berenices)

Image

Details

galaxies/20220402_M100_LRGB_JWH.png

John Hughes, 02 April 2022.

M100 is a "grand-design" spiral galaxy located in the constellation Coma Berenices. At over 56 million light years distant, and some 107,000 light years in diameter, it is a dim object (apparent magnitude 10.1) best viewed through larger telescopes. The image shows the spiral arms nicely along with several more distant, fainter galaxies. 200 mm StellaLyra Ritchey-Chretien reflector, ZWO ASI1600mm camera and Chroma 1.25” LRGB filters. The luminance channel (L) was captured on 01 April with a new moon and the colour channels (RGB) were split across 02 April. Total exposure time was 7.5 hours.


NGC4565 (Coma Berenices)

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Details

galaxies/20140322_NGC4565_DM2.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of seven 60 s exposures at ISO 800.

galaxies/20140322_NGC4565_DM1.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposures at ISO 800.

galaxies/1994xxxx_NGC4565_RP.gif

Ric Pecce, 1994.

Meade 250 mm f/10 SCT. Guided 150 minute exposure on hypersensitised Technical Pan film.


M65, M66 & NGC3628 (The Leo Triplet)

Image

Details

galaxies/20210321_Leo3_AG.jpg

Andy Gibbs, 21 March 2021.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF apochromatic refractor on HEQ5 mount with Atik One 6.0 camera. Equipment controlled via a Primaluce Lab Eagle 3. Eight 300 s exposures in red, green and blue. Software used: Sequence Generator Pro and Affinity Photo (following a recommended workflow in Affinity Photo to register, stack and process images).

galaxies/20170123_Leo3_DM.jpg

David Murton, 04 April 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of ten 480 s exposures at ISO 400.

galaxies/20160404_Leo3_DM.jpg

David Murton, 04 April 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of eight 360 s exposures at ISO 200.

galaxies/20150218_Leo3_DM.jpg

David Murton, 18 February 2015.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of images amounting to 540 s total exposure. ISO 400.

galaxies/20140322_Leo3_DM2.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of seven 60 s exposures at ISO 800.

galaxies/20140322_Leo3_DM1.jpg

David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposure at ISO 800.

galaxies/20140308_Leo3_DM.jpg

David Murton, 08 March 2014.

M65 is to bottom right, M66 to bottom left and NGC3628 to top. The relatively bright star slightly to the right of the mid-point between M65 and NGC3628 is the magnitude 7.1 Hipparcos 55262. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposure at ISO 1600.


M95 & M96 (Leo)

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David Murton, 26 February 2014.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 40 s exposure at ISO 1600 with minimal processing. Taken during a DASH Astro observing session.


NGC2903 (Leo)

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Mike Harlow, 27 February 1995.

300 mm Newtonian reflector with Starlight Express CCD camera.


M81 & M82 (Ursa Major)

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John Hughes, 06 April 2021.

M82 captured in LRGB with a total integration time of 4.3 hours. The starburst region (in red) is of particular interest as it has evolved due to the gravitational interaction between M82 and its close neighbour, M81 (Bode's Galaxy). Within this region of hydrogen gas, star formation is taking place. 200 mm Ritchey-Chretien reflector.

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John Hughes, 12 March 2020.

M81, M82 and NGC3077. William Optics Z103 APO refractor and ZWO ASI1600mm Pro camera with LRGB and Hα 3 nm chroma filters across 01, 02 and 12 March 2020. Total integration time 6.7 hours.

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Andy Gibbs, 18 February 2018.

Explore Scientific ED80 CF Refractor with Atik Titan camera. Thirteen 90 s exposures plus dark frames. Processed with Atik Dawn and Photoshop 2018 CC.

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David Murton, 29 December 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of sixteen 480 s exposures at ISO 400.

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David Murton, 18 February 2015.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of images amounting to 540 s total exposure. ISO 400.

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David Murton, 27 October 2014.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of eight 240 s exposures at ISO 800.

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David Murton, 02 October 2014.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Image compromised by moonlight.

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David Murton, 08 March 2014.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposure at ISO 1600.

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David Murton, 26 February 2014.

M82 with supernova SN2014J. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 40 s exposure at ISO 1600 with minimal processing. Taken during a DASH Astro observing session.

galaxies/20131029_M81+M82_DM.jpg

David Murton, 29 October 2013.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of six 80 s exposures at ISO 400.


M97 (the Owl Nebula) & M108 (Ursa Major)

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David Murton, 04 April 2016.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of eight 360 s exposures at ISO 200.


M101 (Ursa Major)

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John Hughes, 26 March 2020.

William Optics Z103 APO refractor, ZWO ASI1600MM Pro camera. The final result is based on five separate master images, taken on the nights of 23, 24, 25 and 26 March 2020 capturing luminance, red, green and blue channels together with emissions in Hα. Total exposure time 20.4 hours, by far my longest project!

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David Murton, 05 August 2017.

Olympus OM 200 mm lens with Canon 60Da camera on Meade Eq mount. Fifteen 60 s exposures at ISO 800. Demonstrates what can be done without the use of a telescope.

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David Murton, 21 July 2017.

Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of seven 360 s exposures at ISO 800.

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David Murton, 05 September 2015.

Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of twelve 360 s exposures at ISO 200, with dark frames and flat frames.

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David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of seven 60 s exposures at ISO 800.

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David Murton, 22 March 2014.

William Optics ZS71 ED 71 mm, f/5.9 refractor with 0.8x focal reducer/flattener on HEQ5 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Single 60 s exposure at ISO 800.


M109 (Ursa Major)

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Mike Harlow, 08 March 2019.

M109 with some fainter galaxies visible among the background stars. Self-built 30.5 cm, f/3.6 Newtonian astrograph with H16 CCD camera.


NGC6946 (Cygnus)

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David Murton, 07 November 2016.

NGC6946 is a magnitude 8.8 object, visually tiny in the telescope, 10 million light years distant and 40,000 light years in diameter. Nine supernova have been discovered in NGC6946. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Fifteen 420 s exposures at ISO 400.


NGC7331 and Stephan's Quintet (Pegasus)

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David Murton, 28 August 2017.

NGC7331 and the nearby group of four galaxies known as the Deer Lick Group. Further away, to the bottom right, is Stephan's Quintet, a group of five interacting galaxies. The Quintet is only 4 arcminutes in diameter. Close-ups: NGC7331, Stephan's Quintet. Skywatcher 190 mm Maksutov-Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Fifteen 360 s exposures at ISO 800.

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David Murton, 06 September 2015.

NGC7331 shines at magnitude 9.5, and lies at a distance of 49 million LY. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of seven 360 s exposures at ISO 200 with dark frames and flat frames.


NGC7332 and NGC7339 (Pegasus)

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David Murton, 06 September 2015.

The galaxies shine at magnitude 11.1, and lie at a distance of 67 million LY. Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 1100D camera. Stack of five 360 s exposures at ISO 400 with dark frames and flat frames.


Abell 426 (The Perseus Cluster)

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David Murton, 21 January 2017.

The cluster is one of the largest objects in the universe: it is a group of over 1000 galaxies roughly 250 million LY distant. The larger bright galaxy to the left of the image is NGC1275, a prodigious source of X-rays and radio emission. The image is 1.2° wide, approximately 15 million light years. Image with main galaxies marked, upwards of 130! Skywatcher 200PDS 200 mm f/5 Newtonian on NEQ6 mount. Canon 60Da camera. Stack of ten 480 s exposures at ISO 400.